Yeditepe Üniversitesi Hazırlık
Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Muafiyet Sınavı
Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Muafiyet Sınavı İngilizce özel ders
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YEDİTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ İNGİLİZCE HAZIRLIK EĞİTİMİ
Her akademik yıl başında, Yeditepe Üniversitesi Rektörlükçe ilan edilecek gün, saat ve yerde Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Yeterlik Sınavı (Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Muafiyet Sınavı ) yapılır. TOEFL sınavına girip yazılı sistemde 550, bilgisayar tabanlı sistemde 213, internet tabanlı sistemde 79 almış olduğunu veya IELTS (Akademik) sınavından Reading notu en az 6 olmak koşuluyla total 6,5 aldığını belgeleyen öğrenci yabancı dil sınavından muaf tutulur.
Eğitim ve öğretim görecekleri dili yeterli düzeyde bildiklerini Yeditepe Üniversitesi kabul edilen belgelerle ispatlayamayan öğrenciler,Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Hazırlık Bölümünün verdiği İngilizce yeterlik sınavı alınırlar.
Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Yeterlik sınavı 100 üzerinden 60 alan öğrenci başarılı sayılır.Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Yeterlik sınavı başarılı olamayan öğrenciler, en çok iki akademik yıl Yeditepe Hazırlık Bölümüne devam ederler. Ayrıca isteğe bağlı olarak yaz öğretimi yapılır. İngilizce Yeterlik Sınavı 100 üzerinden 59 ve daha düsük not alan yeni kayıtlı öğrenciler Seviye Tespit Sınavlarına girmek zorundadırlar. Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Hazırlık Programında öğrenim gördükten sonra İngilizce Yeterlik Sınavı başarılı olamayan öğrenciler tekrar Seviye Tespit Sınavlarına girebilirler.
Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Hazırlık Programında iki akademik dönem vardır. Birinci dönem (güz dönemi) Ekim-Şubat arası, İkinci dönem (bahar dönemi) Şubat-Haziran arasıdır. Ayrıca, katılımı zorunlu olmayan 8 haftalık yaz okulu vardır.
Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Seviye tespit sınavı C grubuna giren öğrenciler, Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Hazırlık Programı’nın açtığı yaz programına devam edip başarılı olduklarında, izleyen dönemde fakültelerinde ya da yüksekokullarında eğitim ve öğretime devam ederler.
Yeditepe Üniversiesi İngilizce Hazırlık Okulu Seviye Grupları:
Yeditepe Hazırlık Okulu eğitim programı C, B ve A seviyelerinden oluşmaktadır.
A Seviyesi :
Eğitim-öğretim süresi bir dönem olup, bu dönem sonunda başarılı olan öğrenci fakültesine gider, aksi halde aynı seviyede öğrenimini tekrarlar.
Eğitim-öğretim süresi bir dönem olup başarılı olan öğrenci bir üst seviyeye devam eder. Başarısızlık halinde aynı seviye tekrar edilir.
Eğitim-öğretim süresi bir dönem olup, başarılı olan öğrenci bir üst seviyeye devam eder. Başarısızlık halinde aynı seviyede öğrenim tekrar edilir.
A Seviyesinde haftada 15 saat akademik okuma ve yazma teknikleri; haftada 12 saat fakültelere hazırlık amacıyla geliştirilmiş Mühendislik, Tıp, Sosyal ve İşletme derslerine giriş dersleri, not alma ve dinleme teknikleri verilir.
B Seviyesinde haftada 15 saat akademik okuma, yazma dersleri ile haftada 15 saat not alma teknikleri ve gramer dersleri verilmektedir.
C Seviyesinde haftada 21 saat yazma, dinleme ve gramer dersleri ile haftada 9 saat okuma dersleri verilmektedir.
Hazırlık Programlarında değerlendirmeler:
Öğrencinin başarılı sayılabilmesi için yarıyıl sonu sınavında 100 tam not üzerinden en az 60 alması ve başarı notunun da en az 60 olması gerekir. Başarı notu derse katılım notunun % 5′i, habersiz verilen kısa sınavların % 5′i, ara sınav notu ortalamasının %30′u ve yarıyıl sonu sınav notunun %60′ı hesaplanarak bulunur. Yarıyıl sonu sınavında 100 üzerinden en az 60 alamayan öğrencinin başarı notu hesaplanmaz ve öğrenci başarısız sayılır.
Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Hazırlık Programı Yönetimince kabul edilen bir nedenle ara sınava giremeyen öğrenciler bu durumunu gösteren belgeyle birlikte sınavı izleyen 7 gün içinde Öğrenci İşleri Birimine başvurdukları takdirde mazeret sınavına alınırlar. Mazaret sınavının tekrarı yapılmaz. Final sınavlarında mazeret kabul edilmez.
Dönem Sonu Ek Sınav Hakkı:
Devam zorunluluğunu yerine getirdiği ve yarıyıl sonu sınavında 60 aldığı halde başarı notu 50 ile 59 arasında kalan öğrencilere bir sınav hakkı daha verilir. Bu sınavda 59 ve daha aşağı not alan öğrenci başarısız sayılır ve bulunduğu dönemi tekrar etmek zorundadır. Ek sınavlarda mazaret kabul edilmez.
BİLGİLER YEDİTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ WEB SİTESİNDEN BİLGİ AMACIYLA ALINMIŞTIR
USE OF ENGLISH
- _________ average, dolphins eat about one-third __________ their weight in food __________ day.
a. For / from / in b. In / with / in
c. With / about / on d. On / of / per
- In December 2000, skydiver Adrian Nicholas landed in South Africa _____________ a parachute built from Leonardo da Vinci’s designs.
a. used b. using c. which was using d. by the use
- At the center of almost every snow crystal is a tiny piece of dust, ____________
anything from volcanic ash to a particle from outer space.
a. which can be b. that should be
c. from which comes d. those of
4. The bag in ___________________ was found100 metersaway from the bank.
a. that the robbers put the money b. where the robbers put the money
c. which the robbers put the money d. what the robbers put the money
5. Half of the people _____________ to the party did not come.
a. which invited b. inviting c. were invited d. invited
6. A six-year study of a million adults showed that people who get only six to seven hours of sleep a night have ____________________ those who get eight hours.
a. a low death rate than b. the lowest death rate among
c. much lower a death rate with d. a lower death rate than
7. According to an old wives’ tale, a bee entering your house means a visitor is on his way, and ________________, the visitor won’t be a pleasant one.
a. if you kill the bee b. if you had killed the bee
c. if you killed the bee d. if you would kill the bee
- The amount of food __________________ would astonish us now.
a. consuming a wrestler in Ottoman times
b. was being consumed at Ottoman times
c. was consumed by a wrestler in Ottoman times
d. consumed by a wrestler in Ottoman times
- Gandhi, who never received the Nobel Peace Prize, ____________________ when he was assassinated.
- was considering the Nobel Committee
- was being considered by the Nobel Committee
- considered the Nobel Committee
- had considered the Nobel Committee
10. I totally agree with ____________________________.
a. that my father wrote in his letter
b. what the prime minister said in his speech yesterday
c. what did you say to me after the meeting
d. that is the earth going to dry up in a few decades
11. _______________ losing my job was a great shock at first, I think I am slowly getting over it.
a. Because b. Since c. Although d. As
12. The more you water this plant, the ___________ it will grow.
a. more fast b. fastest c. faster d. fast
13. After finishing his engineering studies with high honors, Burak _____________ a job
in a big company, but he preferred to open a pizza restaurant in a small seaside
a. could have found b. must have found c. might find d. should find
14. The waiter in the restaurant told me two different ways of getting to the station but
_______ of them ________ correct.
a. each / were b. either / was c. both / was d. neither / was
15. Jane did not know __________________________ because her father, who paid it
for her, never told her.
- how much was the rent of her apartment
- how much the rent of her apartment was
- how much is the rent of the apartment
- how much costs the rent of the apartment
16. If you can’t afford to ______________________, why don’t you do it yourself?
a. make your house painted b. paint your house
c. have your house painted d. do painting in your house
17. This car is usually chosen because of its low fuel costs _____________ its
a. the same as b. as well c. just as d. as well as
18. Michael and his wife _____________________ ever since they ____________.
a. fought / have been married
b. have been fighting / got married
c. have been fighting / had been married
d. are fighting / are married
19. Ajlan says she does not remember _______________ her book to Didem last week.
a. lend b. lending c. lent d. to lend
20. Sencer, who is not very healthy, ___________ he ________________ more
vegetables when he was a child.
a. wished / ate b. was wishing / was eating
c. wishes / had eaten d. wishes / would eat
21. Although I tried to concentrate on what the lecturer was saying, I was ___________
by the noise from outside.
a. interfered b. stopped c. distracted d. blocked
22. There are several old bridges across the river, which may easily __________
if a big earthquake occurs.
a. pull down b. destroy c. collapse d. interrupt
23. Before you __________ for a job, it is a good idea to get some information about the
company and the working conditions there.
a. assign b. struggle c. require d. apply
24. Joanna is looking for a job that offers a _____________ schedule because with two
young children at home, she cannot work from nine to five every day.
a. compulsory b. notorious c. flexible d. smooth
25. Although Müjde has always been ______________ to her husband, I have heard
rumours that her husband has cheated on her several times in the past.
a. loyal b. sophisticated c. distinct d. fierce
26. Some airline companies have a better ______________ for safety than others.
a. legacy b. reputation c. superiority d. dispute
27. Before being chosen to become an astronaut, a military pilot has to go through
numerous _____________ tests.
a. poverty b. proposal c. endurance d. epidemic
28. Smoking in closed public places has been _______________ by law.
a. performed b. prompted c. promoted d. prohibited
29. Many women find it difficult to ________________ working outside and doing
housework at the same time.
a. cope with b. withdraw from
c. depend on d. take into account
In questions 30 – 39 choose the word that has the closest meaning to the underlined word.
30. Ferit ran down the street with a police officer pursuing him.
a. completing b. reinforcing c. following d. urging
31. At first Sabiha Gökçen Airport was mostly used for domestic flights, but nowadays
some companies have shifted their international flights to that airport, too.
a. internal b. multicultural c. outdated d. foreign
32. Deprivation of sunlight causes serious bone problems in children.
a. Objection b. Presence c. Lack d. Gap
33. Unfortunately, there is no remedy for the type of illness Henry is suffering from.
a. cure b. retreat c. interval d. delay
34. Salt enhances the flavor of food, but too much of it is harmful to the body.
a. increases b. withdraws c. confirms d. diminishes
35. Before you buy a house in the country and start living far from the city center, you
should seriously consider the implications of such a change in your lifestyle.
a. confirmations b. settlements c. stereotypes d. consequences
36. The fires that broke out in the southern region of the country caused extensive
damage to the forests.
a. anonymous b. great c. exclusive d. incompetent
37. The exhibition of contemporary Turkish painting held in Dubai attracted many
a. consecutive b. potential c. modern d. national
38. Environmental issues have been neglected for too long and now many people are
worried about the future of the planet.
a. ignored b. convinced c. accused d. suspected
39. The traffic police who stopped Hüseyin used a simple instrument to detect
alcohol in his blood.
a. conceal b. appeal c. clear d. find
In questions 40 – 49 choose the phrase that best completes each sentence.
40. You won’t be able to understand this show.
a. so you should probably watch it
b. unless you have seen the previous episodes
c. it is too confusing for anyone to understand
d. even if you have never seen it before
41. __________________ that thirty percent of adults have a fear of flying to lesser or
a. It is not easy
b. Although it is a fact
c. Research has shown
d. Whatever experts say
42. The construction of safe buildings continues _______________________.
a. to be the main goal of architects and engineers
b. an impossible goal of architects and engineers
c. while architects and engineers do their jobs improperly
d. the problems caused by poorly trained engineers and architects
43. While I understand your opinion,.
a. I completely agree
b. which is very logical
c. your opinion makes no sense
d. I cannot accept it
44. New safety regulations in airports do not allow passengers __________.
a. who will pay for excess baggage
b. that are spending too much time in the toilets
c. came from all parts of the world
d. to carry liquids and gels in their hand luggage
45.gold is a good investment in times of high inflation or
a. It is often said that b. What is often said
c. Considering that d. It has been considered
46. The Dutch architect Janjaap Ruijssenaars has designed a bed ________________ .
a. for a while
b. that floats in the air
c. without him
d. who works in modern, high-tech factories
47. Not surprisingly, Jane had great difficulty finding a low-priced flat _______________.
a. in such a horrible neighbourhood
b. after her family offered to lend her the money
c. that was both near her work and in good condition
d. because she wasn’t concerned with the location
48.a few of the students ignored their teacher’s
advice and chose not to study for it.
a. Despite knowing that the exam was easy,
b. Assuming the exam would be fairly easy,
c. Because they forgot about the exam,
d. As they didn’t know there would be an exam,
49.in the world that makes me happier than a good book and a
hot cup of tea.
a. There is nothing b. Few things
c. The best thing d. Only one thing
In questions 50 – 59 choose the sentence with the closest meaning to the
50. For all the effort we made, we failed to achieve any significant results.
a. Despite our hard work, we did not accomplish anything important.
b. We were unsuccessful because we didn’t work hard enough.
c. With a little effort, we managed to achieve some significant results.
d. Our efforts almost resulted in a significant achievement.
51. The reporters were shocked to hear the president announce that there was no solution but
a. The reporters did not expect the president to say that war was the only solution.
b. The reporters were surprised when the president said that war was not a solution.
c. The reporters shocked the president by saying there was no solution to the war.
d. The reporters expected the president to say that war was a solution.
52. We must solve the problem of overpopulation quickly, or else it will be too late.
- The population is growing so quickly that there is not enough time to solve the
- If we don’t solve the overpopulation problem soon, we won’t be able to solve it later.
- We don’t have time, so someone else should solve the problem of overpopulation.
- The population is growing very quickly, but we can solve this problem later.
53. Only after they reach the age of three or four do children start to dream about
- Children who have not reached the age of three or four do not dream at all.
- Children do not dream about themselves before they are three or fours years old.
- Children under the age of four dream more about themselves than others.
- Children who dream about themselves have not reached the age of three or four.
54. Mozart’s parents pushed him very hard and turned him into a brilliant musician but an
unbalanced person with no idea of how to relate to people.
- Mozart’s parents were responsible for his unbalanced social life because they forced him to concentrate only on becoming a good musician.
- Without his parents, Mozart could not be a balanced person.
- If his parents had not forced him to study music, Mozart might not have become such a brilliant musician.
- Mozart’s parents knew that he was an unbalanced boy, so they tried to provide an alternative for him and turned him into a brilliant musician.
55. The award-winning Turkish film director Nuri Bilge Ceylan has often been criticized on
the basis of limiting himself to festival films.
- Nuri Bilge Ceylan, the award-winning Turkish film director, is often criticized for
taking his films to festivals.
- Nuri Bilge Ceylan, the award-winning Turkish film director, often criticizes the
festival committees for having limited views.
- Many people criticize Nuri Bilge Ceylan, the award-winning Turkish film director,
for making films to be shown in festivals only.
- The award-winning Turkish film director Nuri Bilge Ceylan has a limited
understanding of films.
56. No sooner did John enter the room than I spilled coffee on his shirt.
a. John had already entered the room before I spilled coffee on his shirt.
b. Before John entered the room, I spilled coffee on his shirt.
c. If John had entered the room sooner, I wouldn’t have spilled coffee on his shirt.
d. Just after John entered the room, I spilled coffee on his shirt.
57. When you reach a final decision on a certain subject, it is best not to think too much
about it afterwards.
a. You should not think too long before making your decisions.
b. You cannot change your mind after deciding what to do.
c. Of course you should think carefully about your decision before making it.
d. Don’t think too much about it after you decide to do something.
58. We made a fortune at the horse races, but we foolishly lost it playing poker.
a. We stupidly lost all the money that we had made at the horse races in a poker
b. We are lucky at horse races but we play poker like fools.
c. Fortunately, we went to a horse race before losing our money in a poker game.
d. We made some money at the horse races, but the fools took it from us in a game of
59. Not all types of dog make suitable pets for people whose apartments are very small.
a. Only some people who live in small apartments should have dogs for pets.
b. People who own small apartments should not have dogs for pets.
c. Only some dogs are suitable for people who live in small apartments.
d. Dogs are not suitable pets for people whose apartments are small.
|OUR LIQUID GOLD|
Petroleum has often been called liquid gold because of its value
in our modern civilization. It is, of course, far more useful than gold. Our
agriculture, industry, transportation, and communication depend upon
petroleum in hundreds of ways, and the possession or lack of it can
5 vitally affect the fortunes of a nation in peace and war.
Although the first commercial oil well was sunk as recently as 1859, man has
been making use of petroleum for various purposes as far back as our records go.
Dark, sticky crude oil has long leaked from cracks in the earth in many parts
of the world. Archaeologists have found that petroleum was used in what is now Iran
10 thousands of years ago as a kind of glue. Throughout that part of the world, there were
a great many leakages. These sometimes started to burn by chance and became the
“eternal fires” of the Persian people, who worshipped fire. The ancient Persians also used
petroleum in warfare; they shot arrows that had tips with burning asphalt at their
15 The early explorers of North America found oil leaking out of the ground or
floating on the surface of water in many places. The Indians used to rub their bodies with
this mineral oil, believing that it strengthened their muscles. The immigrants who settled
in the eastern part of the continent also began to use the oil to a certain extent. Some
merchants, for example, offered it under the name “Indian oil”, and it was supposed
20 to be a wonderful health tonic. Oil for burning was obtained from coal in 1846. This
brought about a new interest in petroleum. In 1859, the first oil well was drilled. This was
the birth of the oil industry.
60. The reason petroleum is described as “liquid gold” is that ______________.
a) fire-worshippers adored it b) it helped cure all sorts of illnesses
c) advanced societies cannot do without it d) just like coal, it is used for burning
61. The verb to leak in lines 8 and 15 is closest in meaning to ______________.
a) to escape or pass through a small opening
b) to be poured into a container
c) to fall down below the surface
d) to disappear into the air
62. What is meant by that part of the world in line 10?
a) the part of the land where there is petroleum
c) archeological sites
d) places with a great many leakages
63. Which of the following is not an example from the text of the uses of petroleum?
a) sticking objects together
b) making muscles strong
c) making archaeological investigations
d) fighting a war
64. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a) A nation’s success in peace and war may depend upon the petroleum it has.
b) Petroleum has been used by man since the beginning of recorded history.
c) Petroleum coming out of the ground may catch fire accidentally.
d) Indian oil, which was sold by merchants to cure many different illnesses,
was obtained from coal.
|HEALING SICK MINDS|
There was a time when insane people were treated like wild animals.
These unfortunates were kept in dirty madhouses, their food was insufficient and they were often beaten by cruel keepers. Today we have come to realize that these people are sick and that we should try to help them with all the resources
5 at our command. A special branch of medicine, psychiatry, deals exclusively with
the causes and the treatment of mental diseases as well as the problem of
It is hard to define mental health and mental disease. In those suffering from mental disease, the personality is disorganized. Such people have poor
10 control over their emotions; they do not adjust well to their environment; their
energy is wasted on internal conflicts. In addition, their memories can be faulty,
or they may see things that do not really exist.
A typical example of mental disorder is psychopathic personality. The
behavior of some psychopaths resembles that of small children in certain respects, 15 yet they may be individuals of superior intelligence. Many vicious criminals and
leaders of undesirable organizations are psychopaths. Some other psychopaths
are pathological liars who cannot distinguish clearly between fact and fantasy.
Such behavior is normal in a small child, but not in a grown-up person.
The most effective way of dealing with mental disorders is to prevent
20 them. It is particularly important to set the patterns of a well-ordered mental life
in childhood. The small child needs affection and a feeling of security for mental
health just as much as he needs food and drink for physical growth. If he lacks
such feelings, his mental health will suffer.
65. The main reason mentally sick people used to be treated badly was that
a. these people were like wild animals
b. madhouses were run by cruel people
c. it had not been realized that these people were, in fact, sick
d. there were not enough resources available for the treatment of these people
66. The word insufficient in line 2 is closest in meaning to_______.
a. not enough b. expensive c. inconsistent d. varied
67. Which of the following statements about psychopaths is FALSE?
a. Some psychopaths are very intelligent.
b. Some psychopaths are childish.
c. Psychopaths are lonely people who can never be socialized.
d. Psychopaths can be dangerous and they may commit crimes.
68. Which of the following is NOT an effective way of dealing with mental disorders?
a. showing love and warmth to children
b. feeding children adequately
c. protecting children from potential threats
d. taking precautions to prevent mental disorders before they appear
69. The word them in line 20 refers to ______________.
a. mental disorders b. children
c. effective ways of dealing d. patterns of well-ordered mental life
According to a recent study, teenagers with a bedroom television tend to have poorer diet and exercise habits and lower grades in school than those without one. A group of researchers at the University of Minnesota questioned 781 teenagers, 62 percent of whom reported having a television in their bedroom.
5 Not surprisingly, those with a bedroom TV were likely to spend four to five
hours more watching TV per week than those without one.
Girls with a bedroom television reported getting less vigorous exercise, 1.8 hours a week compared with 2.5 hours for girls without a TV. They also ate fewer vegetables, drank more sweetened drinks, and ate meals with their
10 family less often. Boys with a bedroom TV reported having a lower grade point
average than boys without one, as well as eating fewer greens, drinking more
sweetened drinks and having fewer family meals. Both boys and girls with a
bedroom TV reported spending less time reading and doing homework.
Boys were more likely to have a television in their bedroom than girls: 68
15 percent versus 58 percent. Teenagers from the highest income families were far
less likely than those from all other income levels to have a bedroom TV.
The researchers also tracked body mass index, a measure that relates
height to weight, and found that having a bedroom TV had no influence on
whether teens were obese. The head of the research team, Ms Barr-Anderson
20 said this finding was a surprise, considering that previous studies on elementary
school children found that having a bedroom TV was a strong predictor of obesity
in younger children.
70. The purpose of the text is to _________________________.
- state that many families can afford to buy a separate television set for their
b. explain that having TVs in their bedrooms does not make a difference in
- draw attention to the negative effects of putting TV sets in children’s bedrooms
- give detailed sales information to electronics companies that produce TV sets
71. According to one of the studies mentioned in the text, ______________________.
- Surprisingly, teenagers who have TVs in their bedrooms get better grades at
school than those who don’t
- teenagers with TVs in their rooms are not allowed to have meals with their
- almost all children belonging to rich families have TVs in their bedrooms
- not having TV sets in their rooms encourages teenagers to live healthier lives
72. Which is NOT true?
- Watching too much television leads to obesity in teenagers.
- Boys and girls with TVs in their rooms share the same eating habits.
- Studies examining the effects of having TVs in teenagers’ and younger children’s bedrooms showed different results.
d. More boys than girls are allowed to have TV sets in their rooms.
73. The word vigorous in line 7 is closest in meaning to _________________.
a. violent b. energetic c. extraordinary d. peaceful
- The word those in line 16 refers to __________________.
a. boys b. families c. teenagers d. girls
75. Which of the following would be the best title for this text?
a. Children and TV b. No TV in Teenagers’ Bedrooms
c. A Minnesota Study d. TV Leads to Obesity in Young Bodies
In business, innovation is typically defined as the introduction of new ideas,
products or methods. Increased global competition is forcing companies to consider
different ways to stimulate product ideas. In theory, innovation sounds like a good
idea. In practice, however, things are not so easy.
5 Analysts believe that the structure of large organizations works against
innovation. Indeed, large organizations are conservative, and new ideas are often
risky. Moreover, new products may threaten the profits from existing products and
services. Another reason why innovation projects fail is explained by the fact that
many innovators have technical knowledge but lack conceptual abilities. In fact,
10 these innovators may not even see the business benefits of their ideas until they
are pointed out to them.
An important decision to make is whether to introduce a product or service
before anyone else, or to wait for others to introduce similar products first.
Companies that introduce a product or service before others are called pioneers.
15 Some say that if you bring a product to market first, you have first mover
advantage: you can influence the way the market develops. Also, the pioneering
product is a novelty when it appears on the market, and is therefore more likely to
capture customer attention than those that follow. Others say that it is better to
wait for pioneers to introduce a new product, and simply be a market follower. In
this way, followers can learn from the mistakes of pioneers.
76. Which one of the following best explains the reason behind companies’ recent
a. There is a strong rivalry among companies throughout the world.
b. There is a lack of innovation in the market.
c. There is a lack of innovative ideas among employees.
d. Innovation does not bring about any business benefits.
77. All of the following are mentioned in the text to explain why many innovation
projects fail EXCEPT:
a. Large, conservative organizations are afraid of innovation.
b. Managers may hesitate to launch new products because they may decrease the
profits from their existing products.
c. Innovative employees lack technical skills.
d. Innovative employees lack conceptual skills.
78. All of the following are benefits of launching a new product before facing competition
a. There is a first mover advantage.
b. The company can learn from its mistakes.
c. The company can shape the market.
d. The company can easily attract attention.
79. What does they in line 10 refer to?
a. innovative employees
b. technical and conceptual abilities
c. business benefits
d. innovation projects
80. The word novelty in line 17 is closest in meaning to:
a. a short book b. an expensive object
c. something usual and common d. something new and different
WRITING (20 points): Essay writing