Yeditepe Üniversitesi Hazırlık 

Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Muafiyet Sınavı

Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Muafiyet Sınavı  İngilizce özel ders

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Her akademik yıl başında, Yeditepe Üniversitesi Rektörlükçe ilan edilecek gün, saat ve yerde Yeditepe Üniversitesi    İngilizce  Yeterlik Sınavı (Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Muafiyet Sınavı ) yapılır. TOEFL sınavına girip yazılı sistemde 550, bilgisayar tabanlı sistemde 213, internet tabanlı sistemde 79 almış olduğunu veya IELTS (Akademik) sınavından Reading notu en az 6 olmak koşuluyla total 6,5 aldığını belgeleyen öğrenci yabancı dil sınavından muaf tutulur.

Eğitim ve öğretim görecekleri dili yeterli düzeyde bildiklerini Yeditepe  Üniversitesi kabul edilen belgelerle ispatlayamayan öğrenciler,Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce  Hazırlık Bölümünün verdiği İngilizce yeterlik sınavı  alınırlar.

Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Yeterlik sınavı 100 üzerinden 60 alan öğrenci başarılı sayılır.Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce  Yeterlik sınavı başarılı olamayan öğrenciler, en çok iki akademik yıl Yeditepe  Hazırlık Bölümüne devam ederler. Ayrıca isteğe bağlı olarak yaz öğretimi yapılır. İngilizce  Yeterlik Sınavı 100 üzerinden 59 ve daha düsük not alan yeni kayıtlı öğrenciler Seviye Tespit Sınavlarına girmek zorundadırlar. Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce  Hazırlık Programında öğrenim gördükten sonra İngilizce Yeterlik Sınavı  başarılı olamayan öğrenciler tekrar Seviye Tespit Sınavlarına girebilirler.

Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Hazırlık Programında iki akademik dönem vardır. Birinci dönem (güz dönemi) Ekim-Şubat arası, İkinci dönem (bahar dönemi) Şubat-Haziran arasıdır. Ayrıca, katılımı zorunlu olmayan 8 haftalık yaz okulu vardır.

Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Seviye tespit sınavı  C grubuna giren öğrenciler, Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Hazırlık Programı’nın açtığı yaz programına devam edip başarılı olduklarında, izleyen dönemde fakültelerinde ya da yüksekokullarında eğitim ve öğretime devam ederler.

Yeditepe  Üniversiesi İngilizce Hazırlık Okulu Seviye Grupları:
Yeditepe Hazırlık Okulu eğitim programı C, B ve A seviyelerinden oluşmaktadır.
A Seviyesi :
Eğitim-öğretim süresi bir dönem olup, bu dönem sonunda başarılı olan öğrenci fakültesine gider, aksi halde aynı seviyede öğrenimini tekrarlar.
B Seviyesi:
Eğitim-öğretim süresi bir dönem olup başarılı olan öğrenci bir üst seviyeye devam eder. Başarısızlık halinde aynı seviye tekrar edilir.
C Seviyesi:
Eğitim-öğretim süresi bir dönem olup, başarılı olan öğrenci bir üst seviyeye devam eder. Başarısızlık halinde aynı seviyede öğrenim tekrar edilir.
A Seviyesinde haftada 15 saat akademik okuma ve yazma teknikleri; haftada 12 saat fakültelere hazırlık amacıyla geliştirilmiş Mühendislik, Tıp, Sosyal ve İşletme derslerine giriş dersleri, not alma ve dinleme teknikleri verilir.
B Seviyesinde haftada 15 saat akademik okuma, yazma dersleri ile haftada 15 saat not alma teknikleri ve gramer dersleri verilmektedir.
C Seviyesinde haftada 21 saat yazma, dinleme ve gramer dersleri ile haftada 9 saat okuma dersleri verilmektedir.
Hazırlık Programlarında değerlendirmeler:

Öğrencinin başarılı sayılabilmesi için yarıyıl sonu sınavında 100 tam not üzerinden en az 60 alması ve başarı notunun da en az 60 olması gerekir. Başarı notu derse katılım notunun % 5′i, habersiz verilen kısa sınavların % 5′i, ara sınav notu ortalamasının %30′u ve yarıyıl sonu sınav notunun %60′ı hesaplanarak bulunur. Yarıyıl sonu sınavında 100 üzerinden en az 60 alamayan öğrencinin başarı notu hesaplanmaz ve öğrenci başarısız sayılır.

Mazeret Sınavı:

Yeditepe Üniversitesi İngilizce Hazırlık Programı Yönetimince kabul edilen bir nedenle ara sınava giremeyen öğrenciler bu durumunu gösteren belgeyle birlikte sınavı izleyen 7 gün içinde Öğrenci İşleri Birimine başvurdukları takdirde mazeret sınavına alınırlar. Mazaret sınavının tekrarı yapılmaz. Final sınavlarında mazeret kabul edilmez.

Dönem Sonu Ek Sınav Hakkı:

Devam zorunluluğunu yerine getirdiği ve yarıyıl sonu sınavında 60 aldığı halde başarı notu 50 ile 59 arasında kalan öğrencilere bir sınav hakkı daha verilir. Bu sınavda 59 ve daha aşağı not alan öğrenci başarısız sayılır ve bulunduğu dönemi tekrar etmek zorundadır. Ek sınavlarda mazaret kabul edilmez.





In questions 1 – 20 choose the word or words that best complete the sentence.




  1. _________ average, dolphins eat about one-third __________  their weight in food __________ day.

a. For / from / in                                      b. In / with / in

c. With / about / on                         d. On / of / per

  1. In December 2000, skydiver Adrian Nicholas landed in South Africa _____________ a  parachute built from Leonardo da Vinci’s designs.

a. used                  b. using              c. which was using            d. by the use

  1. At the center of almost every snow crystal is a tiny piece of dust, ____________

anything from volcanic ash to a particle from outer space.

a. which can be                               b. that should be

c. from which comes                        d. those of

4. The bag in ___________________ was found100 metersaway from the bank.

a. that the robbers put the money      b. where the robbers put the money

c. which the robbers put the money    d. what the robbers put the money

5.  Half of the people _____________ to the party did not come.

a. which invited       b. inviting          c. were invited                  d. invited

6.  A six-year study of a million adults showed that people who get only six to seven                                                                                                                                                     hours of sleep a night have  ____________________ those who get eight hours.

a. a low death rate than                   b. the lowest death rate among

c. much lower a death rate with         d. a lower death rate than

7.  According to an old wives’ tale, a bee entering your house means a visitor is on his way, and ________________, the visitor won’t be a pleasant one.

a. if you kill the bee                         b. if you had killed the bee

c. if you killed the bee                      d. if you would kill the bee

  1. The amount of food __________________ would astonish us now.

a. consuming a wrestler in Ottoman times

b. was being consumed at Ottoman times

c. was consumed by a wrestler in Ottoman times

d. consumed by a wrestler in Ottoman times

  1. Gandhi, who never received the Nobel Peace Prize, ____________________ when he was assassinated.
  2. was considering the Nobel Committee
    1. was being considered by the Nobel Committee
    2. considered the Nobel Committee
    3. had considered the Nobel Committee

10. I totally agree with ____________________________.

a. that my father wrote in his letter

b. what the prime minister said in his speech yesterday

c. what did you say to me after the meeting

d. that is the earth going to dry up in a few decades

11. _______________ losing my job was a great shock at first, I think I am slowly getting over it.

a. Because                  b. Since                  c. Although             d. As

12. The more you water this plant, the ___________ it will grow.

a. more fast                b. fastest               c. faster                 d. fast

13. After finishing his engineering studies with high honors, Burak _____________ a job

in a big company, but he preferred to open a pizza restaurant in a small seaside


a. could have found      b. must have found  c. might find           d. should find

14. The waiter in the restaurant told me two different ways of getting to the station but

_______ of them ________ correct.

a. each / were             b. either / was         c. both / was           d. neither / was

15.  Jane did not know __________________________ because her father, who paid it

for her, never told her.

  1. how much was the rent of her apartment
  2. how much the rent of her apartment was
  3. how much is the rent of the apartment
  4. how much costs the rent of the apartment

16. If you can’t afford to ______________________, why don’t you do it yourself?

a. make your house painted                        b. paint your house

c. have your house painted                         d. do painting in your house

17. This car is usually chosen because of its low fuel costs _____________ its

safety features.

a. the same as            b. as well                c. just as                d. as well as

18. Michael and his wife _____________________ ever since they ____________.

a. fought / have been married

b. have been fighting / got married

c. have been fighting / had been married

d. are fighting / are married

19. Ajlan says she does not remember _______________ her book to Didem last week.

a. lend                       b. lending               c. lent                    d. to lend

20. Sencer, who is not very healthy, ___________ he ________________ more

vegetables when he was a child.

a. wished / ate                                        b. was wishing / was eating

c. wishes / had eaten                                d. wishes / would eat




In questions 21 – 29 choose the word that best completes the sentence.





21.  Although I tried to concentrate on what the lecturer was saying, I was ___________

by the noise from outside.

a. interfered               b. stopped              c. distracted            d. blocked

22. There are several old bridges across the river, which may easily __________

if a big earthquake occurs.


a. pull down                 b. destroy               c. collapse             d. interrupt

23. Before you __________ for a job, it is a good idea to get some information about the

company and the working conditions there.

a. assign                     b. struggle               c. require                d. apply



24. Joanna is looking for a job that offers a _____________ schedule because with two

young children at home, she cannot work from nine to five every day.

a. compulsory              b. notorious             c. flexible             d. smooth

25. Although Müjde has always been ______________ to her husband, I have heard

rumours that her husband has cheated on her several times in the past.

a.  loyal                    b.  sophisticated                c. distinct                d. fierce

26. Some airline companies have a better ______________ for safety than others.

a.  legacy                    b. reputation                    c. superiority         d. dispute

27. Before being chosen to become an astronaut, a military pilot has to go through

numerous _____________ tests.

a.  poverty                  b. proposal                      c. endurance           d. epidemic

28. Smoking in closed public places has been _______________ by law.

a. performed               b. prompted                     c. promoted            d. prohibited

29. Many women find it difficult to ________________ working outside and doing

housework at the same time.

a. cope with                                                     b. withdraw from

c. depend on                                                    d. take into account

In questions 30 – 39 choose the word that has the closest meaning to the underlined word.

30. Ferit ran down the street with a police officer pursuing him.

a. completing               b. reinforcing                   c. following             d. urging

31. At first Sabiha Gökçen Airport was mostly used for domestic flights, but nowadays

some companies have shifted their international flights to that airport, too.

a.  internal                 b. multicultural                  c.  outdated            d. foreign

32. Deprivation of sunlight causes serious bone problems in children.

a. Objection                 b. Presence                      c. Lack                            d. Gap

33. Unfortunately, there is no remedy for the type of illness Henry is suffering from.

a. cure                       b. retreat                        c. interval               d. delay

34. Salt enhances the flavor of food, but too much of it is harmful to the body.

a. increases                b. withdraws                    c. confirms             d. diminishes

35. Before you buy a house in the country and start living far from the city center, you

should seriously consider the implications of such a change in your lifestyle.

a.          confirmations          b. settlements         c. stereotypes         d. consequences

36. The fires that broke out in the southern region of the country caused extensive

damage to the forests.

a. anonymous             b. great                  c. exclusive             d. incompetent

37. The exhibition of contemporary Turkish painting held in Dubai attracted many


a. consecutive              b. potential             c. modern               d. national

38. Environmental issues have been neglected for too long and now many people are

worried about the future of the planet.

a. ignored                   b. convinced            c. accused              d. suspected

39. The traffic police who stopped Hüseyin used a simple instrument to detect

alcohol in his blood.

a. conceal                   b. appeal                c. clear                  d. find



In questions 40 – 49 choose the phrase that best completes each sentence.

40. You won’t be able to understand this show.

a.  so you should probably watch it

b.  unless you have seen the previous episodes

c.  it is too confusing for anyone to understand

d.  even if you have never seen it before

41. __________________ that thirty percent of adults have a fear of flying to lesser or

greater degrees.

a.  It is not easy

b.  Although it is a fact

c.  Research has shown

d.  Whatever experts say

42. The construction of safe buildings continues _______________________.

a.  to be the main goal of architects and engineers

b.  an impossible goal of architects and engineers

c.  while architects and engineers do their jobs improperly

d.  the problems caused by poorly trained engineers and architects

43.   While I understand your opinion,.

a.  I completely agree

b.  which is very logical

c.  your opinion makes no sense

d.  I cannot accept it

44.  New safety regulations in airports do not allow passengers __________.


a.  who will pay for excess baggage

b.  that are spending too much time in the toilets

c.  came from all parts of the world

d.  to carry liquids and gels in their hand luggage is a good investment in times of high inflation or

economic uncertainty.

a.  It is often said that                                    b.  What is often said

c.  Considering that                                        d.  It has been considered

46. The Dutch architect Janjaap Ruijssenaars  has designed a bed ________________ .

a.  for a while

b.  that floats in the air

c.  without him

d.  who works in modern, high-tech factories

47. Not surprisingly, Jane had great difficulty finding a low-priced flat _______________.

a.  in such a horrible neighbourhood

b.  after her family offered to lend her the money

c.  that was both near her work and in good condition

d.  because she wasn’t concerned with the location

48.a few of the students ignored their teacher’s

advice and chose not to study for it.

a.  Despite knowing that the exam was easy,

b.  Assuming the exam would be fairly easy,

c.  Because they forgot about the exam,

d.  As they didn’t know there would be an exam, the world that makes me happier than a good book and a

hot cup of tea.

a.  There is nothing                                                b.  Few things

c.  The best thing                                                   d.  Only one thing

In questions 50 – 59 choose the sentence with the closest meaning to the

given sentence.

50. For all the effort we made, we failed to achieve any significant results.

a.  Despite our hard work, we did not accomplish anything important.

b.  We were unsuccessful because we didn’t work hard enough.

c.  With a little effort, we managed to achieve some significant results.

d.  Our efforts almost resulted in a significant achievement.

51. The reporters were shocked to hear the president announce that there was no solution but


a.  The reporters did not expect the president to say that war was the only solution.

b.  The reporters were surprised when the president said that war was not a solution.

c.  The reporters shocked the president by saying there was no solution to the war.

d.  The reporters expected the president to say that war was a solution.

52.  We must solve the problem of overpopulation quickly, or else it will be too late.

  1. The population is growing so quickly that there is not enough time to solve the


  1. If we don’t solve the overpopulation problem soon, we won’t be able to solve it later.
  2. We don’t have time, so someone else should solve the problem of overpopulation.
  3. The population is growing very quickly, but we can solve this problem later.

53. Only after they reach the age of three or four do children start to dream about


  1. Children who have not reached the age of three or four do not dream at all.
  2. Children do not dream about themselves before they are three or fours years old.
  3. Children under the age of four dream more about themselves than others.
  4. Children who dream about themselves have not reached the age of three or four.

54.  Mozart’s parents pushed him very hard and turned him into a brilliant musician but an

unbalanced person with no idea of how to relate to people.

  1. Mozart’s parents were responsible for his unbalanced social life because they forced him to concentrate only on becoming a good musician.
  2. Without his parents, Mozart could not be a balanced person.
  3. If his parents had not forced him to study music, Mozart might not have become such a brilliant  musician.
  4. Mozart’s parents knew that he was an unbalanced boy, so they tried to provide an alternative for him and turned him into a brilliant musician.

55.  The award-winning Turkish film director Nuri Bilge Ceylan has often been criticized on

the basis of limiting himself to festival films.

  1. Nuri Bilge Ceylan, the award-winning Turkish film director, is often criticized for

taking his films to festivals.

  1. Nuri Bilge Ceylan, the award-winning Turkish film director, often criticizes the

festival committees for having limited views.

  1. Many people criticize Nuri Bilge Ceylan, the award-winning Turkish film director,

for making films to be shown in festivals only.

  1. The award-winning Turkish film director Nuri Bilge Ceylan has a limited

understanding of films.

56. No sooner did John enter the room than I spilled coffee on his shirt.

a.  John had already entered the room before I spilled coffee on his shirt.

b.  Before John entered the room, I spilled coffee on his shirt.

c.  If John had entered the room sooner, I wouldn’t have spilled coffee on his shirt.

d.  Just after John entered the room, I spilled coffee on his shirt.

57.  When you reach a final decision on a certain subject, it is best not to think too much

about it afterwards.

a.  You should not think too long before making your decisions.

b.  You cannot change your mind after deciding what to do.

c.  Of course you should think carefully about your decision before making it.

d.  Don’t think too much about it after you decide to do something.

58. We made a fortune at the horse races, but we foolishly lost it playing poker.

a.  We stupidly lost all the money that we had made at the horse races in a poker


b.  We are lucky at horse races but we play poker like fools.

c.  Fortunately, we went to a horse race before losing our money in a poker game.

d.  We made some money at the horse races, but the fools took it from us in a game of


59.  Not all types of dog make suitable pets for people whose apartments are very small.

a.  Only some people who live in small apartments should have dogs for pets.

b.  People who own small apartments should not have dogs for pets.

c.  Only some dogs are suitable for people who live in small apartments.

d.  Dogs are not suitable pets for people whose apartments are small.





Answer questions 60 – 80 according to the reading passages.






Petroleum has often been called liquid gold because of its value

in our modern civilization. It is, of course, far more useful than gold. Our

agriculture, industry, transportation, and communication depend upon

petroleum in hundreds of ways, and the possession or lack of it can

5 vitally affect the fortunes of a nation in peace and war.

Although the first commercial oil well was sunk as recently as 1859, man has

been making use of petroleum for various purposes as far back as our records go.

Dark, sticky crude oil has long leaked from cracks in the earth in many parts

of the world. Archaeologists have found that petroleum was used in what is now Iran

10 thousands of years ago as a kind of glue. Throughout that part of the world, there were

a great many leakages. These sometimes started to burn by chance and became the

“eternal fires” of the Persian people, who worshipped fire. The ancient Persians also used

petroleum in warfare; they shot arrows that had tips with burning asphalt at their


15 The early explorers of North America found oil leaking out of the ground or

floating on the surface of water in many places. The Indians used to rub their bodies with

this mineral oil, believing that it strengthened their muscles. The immigrants who settled

in the eastern part of the continent also began to use the oil to a certain extent.  Some

merchants, for example, offered it under the name “Indian oil”, and it was supposed

20 to be a wonderful health tonic. Oil for burning was obtained from coal in 1846. This

brought about a new interest in petroleum. In 1859, the first oil well was drilled. This was

the birth of the oil industry.

60. The reason petroleum is described as “liquid gold” is that ______________.

a) fire-worshippers adored it                       b) it helped cure all sorts of illnesses

c) advanced societies cannot do without it     d) just like coal, it is used for burning

61.  The verb to leak in lines 8 and 15 is closest in meaning to ______________.

a) to escape or pass through a small opening

b) to be poured into a container

c) to fall down below the surface

d) to disappear into the air

62. What is meant by that part of the world in line 10?


a) the part of the land where there is petroleum

b) Iran

c) archeological sites

d) places with a great many leakages

63.  Which of the following is not an example from the text of the uses of petroleum?

a) sticking objects together

b) making muscles strong

c) making archaeological investigations

d) fighting a war

64. Which of the following statements is FALSE?

a) A nation’s success in peace and war may depend upon the petroleum it has.

b) Petroleum has been used by man since the beginning of recorded history.

c) Petroleum coming out of the ground may catch fire accidentally.

d) Indian oil, which was sold by merchants to cure many different illnesses,

was obtained from coal.


There was a time when insane people were treated like wild animals.

These unfortunates were kept in dirty madhouses, their food was insufficient and they were often beaten by cruel keepers. Today we have come to realize that these people are sick and that we should try to help them with all the resources

5 at our command. A special branch of medicine, psychiatry, deals exclusively with

the causes and the treatment of mental diseases as well as the problem of


It is hard to define mental health and mental disease. In those suffering from mental disease, the personality is disorganized. Such people have poor

10 control over their emotions; they do not adjust well to their environment; their

energy is wasted on internal conflicts.  In addition, their memories can be faulty,

or they may see things that do not really exist.

A typical example of mental disorder is psychopathic personality.  The

behavior of some psychopaths resembles that of small children in certain respects, 15 yet they may be individuals of superior intelligence. Many vicious criminals and

leaders of  undesirable organizations are psychopaths. Some other psychopaths

are pathological liars who cannot distinguish clearly between fact and fantasy.

Such behavior is normal in a small child, but not in a grown-up person.

The most effective way of dealing with mental disorders is to prevent

20 them. It is particularly important to set the patterns of a well-ordered mental life

in childhood. The small child needs affection and a feeling of security for mental

health just as much as he needs food and drink for physical growth. If he lacks

such feelings, his mental health will suffer.

65. The main reason mentally sick people used to be treated badly was that


a. these people were like wild animals

b. madhouses were run by cruel people

c. it had not been realized that these people were, in fact, sick

d. there were not enough resources available for the treatment of these people

66. The word insufficient in line 2 is closest in meaning to_______.

a. not enough              b. expensive                 c. inconsistent                d. varied

67. Which of the following statements about psychopaths is FALSE?

a. Some psychopaths are very intelligent.

b. Some psychopaths are childish.

c. Psychopaths are lonely people who can never be socialized.

d. Psychopaths can be dangerous and they may commit crimes.

68. Which of the following is NOT an effective way of dealing with mental disorders?

a. showing love and warmth to children

b. feeding children adequately

c. protecting children from potential threats

d. taking precautions to prevent mental disorders before they appear


69. The word them in line 20 refers to ______________.

a. mental disorders                               b. children

c. effective ways of dealing                   d. patterns of well-ordered mental life

According to a recent study, teenagers with a bedroom television tend to have poorer diet and exercise habits and lower grades in school than those without one. A group of researchers at the University of Minnesota questioned 781 teenagers, 62 percent of whom reported having a television in their bedroom.

5 Not surprisingly, those with a bedroom TV were likely to spend four to five

hours more watching TV per week than those without one.

Girls with a bedroom television reported getting less vigorous exercise, 1.8 hours a week compared with 2.5 hours for girls without a TV.  They also ate fewer vegetables, drank more sweetened drinks, and ate meals with their

10 family less often.  Boys with a bedroom TV reported having a lower grade point

average than boys without one, as well as eating fewer greens, drinking more

sweetened drinks and having fewer family meals. Both boys and girls with a

bedroom TV reported spending less time reading and doing homework.

Boys were more likely to have a television in their bedroom than girls:  68

15 percent versus 58 percent.  Teenagers from the highest income families were far

less likely than those from all other income levels to have a bedroom TV.

The researchers also tracked body mass index, a measure that relates

height to weight, and found that having a bedroom TV had no influence on

whether teens were obese.  The head of the research team, Ms Barr-Anderson

20 said this finding was a surprise, considering that previous studies on elementary

school children found that having a bedroom TV was a strong predictor of obesity

in younger children.

70.  The purpose of the text is to _________________________.

  1. state that many families can afford to buy a separate television set for their


b.  explain that having TVs in their bedrooms does not make a difference in

children’s lives

  1. draw attention to the negative effects of putting TV sets in children’s bedrooms
  2. give detailed sales information to electronics companies that produce TV sets

71. According to one of the studies mentioned in the text, ______________________.

  1. Surprisingly, teenagers who have TVs in their bedrooms get better grades at

school than those who don’t

  1. teenagers with TVs in their rooms are not allowed to have meals with their


  1. almost all children belonging to rich families have TVs in their bedrooms
  2. not having TV sets in their rooms encourages teenagers to live healthier lives

72.  Which is NOT true?


  1. Watching too much television leads to obesity in teenagers.
  2. Boys and girls with TVs in their rooms share the same eating habits.
  3. Studies examining the effects of having TVs in teenagers’ and younger children’s bedrooms showed different results.

d.   More boys than girls are allowed to have TV sets in their rooms.

73. The word vigorous in line 7 is closest in meaning to _________________.

a. violent                b. energetic            c. extraordinary       d. peaceful

  1. The word  those in line 16 refers to __________________.

a. boys                  b. families              c. teenagers            d. girls

75. Which of the following would be the best title for this text?

a. Children and TV                                b. No TV in Teenagers’ Bedrooms

c. A Minnesota Study                            d. TV Leads to Obesity in Young Bodies



In business, innovation is typically defined as the introduction of new ideas,

products or methods. Increased global competition is forcing companies to consider

different ways to stimulate product ideas. In theory, innovation sounds like a good

idea. In practice, however, things are not so easy.

5 Analysts believe that the structure of large organizations works against

innovation. Indeed, large organizations are conservative, and new ideas are often

risky.  Moreover, new products may threaten the profits from existing products and

services. Another reason why innovation projects fail is explained by the fact that

many innovators have technical knowledge but lack conceptual abilities. In fact,

10 these innovators may not even see the business benefits of their ideas until they

are pointed out to them.

An important decision to make is whether to introduce a product or service

before anyone else, or to wait for others to introduce similar products first.

Companies that introduce a product or service before others are called pioneers.

15 Some say that if you bring a product to market first, you have first mover

advantage: you can influence the way the market develops. Also, the pioneering

product is a novelty when it appears on the market, and is therefore more likely to

capture cus­tomer attention than those that follow. Others say that it is better to

wait for pioneers to introduce a new product, and simply be a market follower. In

this way, followers can learn from the mistakes of pioneers.

76. Which one of the following best explains the reason behind companies’ recent

innovation efforts?

a. There is a strong rivalry among companies throughout the world.

b. There is a lack of innovation in the market.

c. There is a lack of innovative ideas among employees.

d. Innovation does not bring about any business benefits.

77. All of the following are mentioned in the text to explain why many innovation

projects fail EXCEPT:

a. Large, conservative organizations are afraid of innovation.

b. Managers may hesitate to launch new products because they may decrease the

profits from their existing products.

c. Innovative employees lack technical skills.

d. Innovative employees lack conceptual skills.

78. All of the following are benefits of launching a new product before facing competition



a. There is a first mover advantage.

b. The company can learn from its mistakes.

c. The company can shape the market.

d. The company can easily attract attention.

79. What does they in line 10 refer to?

a. innovative employees

b. technical and conceptual abilities

c. business benefits

d. innovation projects

80. The word novelty in line 17 is closest in meaning to:

a. a short book                                         b. an expensive object

c. something usual and common                  d. something new and different

WRITING (20 points):  Essay writing