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English Preparatory Program
Bahçeşehir Üniversitesi İngilizce Dil Yeterlik Sınavı İçeriği:
BİRİNCİ BÖLÜM: YAZILI SINAV
Soru sayısı : 60 çoktan seçmeli +1 kompozisyon yazma
Süre : 170 dakika
Ağırlık : %80
Tanımı : Bu sınavdaki sorular aşağıdaki becerileri ölçmeyi hedefler:
kelime bilgisi, dili kullanma, okuma, dinleme ve yazma
İKİNCİ BÖLÜM: SÖZLÜ SINAV
Süre : 4 – 6 dakika (her öğrenci için)
Tanımı: Sınavın bu bölümünde öğrenciden kendisine verilen iki farklı konu
toplam 4-6 dakika konuşması beklenir. Öğrenci aşağıdaki ölçütlere göre
- · Konuya bağlılık ve konuyu geliştirme
- · Dilbilgisi
- · Sözcük bilgisi
- · Akıcılık
- · Sesletim ve tonlama
Prosedür: Öğrenci bir zarftan toplam iki soru çeker ve bunlara ayrıntılı yanıt verir.
Konular: Öğrencinin aşağıda belirtilen konular hakkında konuşması beklenir:
- · Toplum
- · Aile
- · İş ve Çalışma Dünyası
- · Güncel Konular (savaş, felaketler, ekonomi, vs.)
- · Çevre
- · Spor
- · Seyahat
- · Dil
- · Reklam
- · Eğitim
- · Sanat
- · Medya
- · Suç
- · Sağlık
Bahçeşehir University English Proficiency Exam Components:
PART 1: WRITTEN EXAM
Number of questions: 60 (multiple-choice) +1 writing task
Duration : 170 minutes
Weighting : 80%
Description: The questions on the test have been designed to assess the following: vocabulary, use of English, reading, listening and writing
PART 2: SPEAKING EXAM
Duration: 4 – 6 minutes (per student)
Description: In this section, the student is expected to speak about two different topics for about 4-6 minutes. The student’s performance is assessed according to the following criteria:
- · Relevance and expansion
- · Grammar
- · Vocabulary
- · Fluency
- · Pronunciation and intonation
Procedure: The student draws two questions from an envelope and tries to answer them in detail.
THEMES: The student is expected to express his / her opinion about the following topics:
- · Society
- · Family
- · Work and Business
- · Current Affairs (wars, world economics, disasters, etc.)
- · Environment
- · Sports
- · Travel
- · Language
- · Advertising
- · Education
- · Arts
- · Media
- · Crime
- · Health
BAHÇEŞEHİR UNIVERSITY SAMPLE PROFICIENCY EXAM
SECTION 1- VOCABULARY
Questions 1-10: Choose the best answer to make meaningful sentences.
1. Because of the _____ gravitational pull of the Moon, the shape of the Earth actually changes as the largest oceans are pulled toward the Moon.
a) successful b) redundant c) dogmatic d) enormous
2. Deciding on which school to go to was a(n) _____ decision for me so I consulted anybody who could be of help.
a) honest b) selective c) crucial d) irregular
3. The production and _____ of goods and services are the ultimate aim of all economic endeavour.
a) conscience b) consumption c) broadcast d) disappearance
4. It is a well-known fact that the _____ of a large house requires a great deal of work.
a) purification b) solidarity c) consequence d) maintenance
5. A law that _____ tobacco advertising in newspapers and magazines has just been made public.
a) prohibits b) recycles c) surrenders d) overcomes
6. Towards the end of the summer, all airlines are forced to _____ fares heavily in order to spur demand.
a) discount b) satisfy c) spread d) reform
7. Although the literacy rate has increased _____ in the last fifty years, the overall quality of education in the secondary schools has markedly deteriorated.
a) emotionally b) physically c) dramatically d) economically
8. Even though it was his first public concert, my brother performed _____ well the other night.
a) outstandingly b) ambiguously c) impatiently d) previously
9. It is our _____ to provide your business with the lowest possible rate combined with highest level of customer service.
a) confidence b) attitude c) assignment d) priority
10. Do you think some TV programmes _____ public opinion through their selective publishing and presentation of “news”?
a) adapt b) manipulate c) deviate d) promote
SECTION 2- USE OF ENGLISH
Questions 11-15: Read the text below and decide which answer best fits each gap.
We spotted the Marie Celeste, a passenger ship that went missing, drifting in mid-Atlantic on December 5, 1872. ___(11)___ the ship looked damaged, the captain said the three of us ___(12)___ board her at once to investigate and bring him back ___(13)___ information we could get hold of. We were able to climb on board ___(14)___ too much difficulty, but we couldn’t see any sign of life anywhere. The crew of the Marie Celeste must have abandoned the ship as the ship’s small lifeboat was missing. Some navigational equipment ___(15)___ a ship of that kind should have had on board was also missing.
11. a) As for b) Since c) Because of d) As a result of
12. a) have b) could c) had to d) used to
13. a) none b) many c) plenty d) any
14. a) without b) on c) off d) over
15. a) when b) whose c) where d) which
Questions 16-20: Read the text below and decide which answer best fits each gap.
Modern technology has brought about enormous improvements in communications, ___(16)___ many peopleare still worried about using the latest computer technology. I am often surprised to meet colleagues who still don’t know ___(17)___ the ‘e’ in e-mail stands for and they are too embarrassed to ask. They assume you have to be skilled ___(18)___ computers to send a message via e-mail, but in fact it is ___(19)___ thing in the world. It is also cheaper to send an e-mail message than to send an ordinary letter or a ‘snail’ message which also takes ___(20)___ longer.
16. a) for b) yet c) therefore d) despite
17. a) that b) where c) which d) what
18. a) in b) about c) to d) into
19. a) simpler b) simplest c) the simpler d) the simplest
20. a) few b) many c) much d) a lot of
Questions 21-25: Choose the option which best rewrites each sentence.
21. I have been abroad for nearly two years, so I am out of touch with everything here.
a) I feel quite like a stranger now that I am back after almost two years abroad.
b) Two years or so out of the country will make you feel differently about your own country.
c) On my return after almost two years, I was touched to find a few changes here.
d) Two years abroad has estranged me, so I don’t want to go back to my country.
22. Nowadays, the government seems to care more about gathering money than changing the society for better.
a) The government is more concerned with collecting money than anything else these days.
b) Many people think that except for collecting money, the government today does nothing useful.
c) The most important thing for the government today is to collect more money from the society.
d) The government appears to give importance to collecting money rather than improving the society.
23. Unless a country can establish the fact that its economy is sound, the world’s public and private lenders refuse to extend loans.
a) As long as a country has a reliable economy, investors from all over the world will refrain from grantingn loans.
b) Only when a country builds up a stable economy, do public and private investors of the world agree to lend loans.
c) If a country fails to formulate a static economy, public and private investors will be intent on making investments there.
d) Until a country proves the fact that it has a stable economy, investors from all over the world will queue up to make investments there.
24. When there was a sudden drop in gold prices, even those who knew the market very well were astonished.
a) The remarkable decrease in gold prices took even the experts by surprise.
b) The experts who knew the market very well have been prepared for the unexpected drop in gold prices.
c) Everyone got surprised at the sudden drop in gold prices except for the experts who knew the market very well.
d) The significant decrease in gold prices was something unexpected.
25. Despite the fact that some are opposed to the idea, most people believe that the printed word remains the best way to get a message across.
a) It is obvious that the printed word is still the best way to get a message across, but most people think to the contrary.
b) A lot of people still believe that the printed word is one of the best ways to convey a message.
c) There is a certain amount of opposition, but it is generally believed that the printed word is still the best way when conveying a message.
d) Though there is some opposition, it is known that the printed word is used more than other media when conveying a message.
SECTION 3- READING
Questions 26-45: Choose the best answer according to the passage below.
(I) (1) “What’s for dinner?” In the past, the answer to that household question was an issue for debate among family members only. But not any more. Now scientists, economists, trade experts, geneticists and politicians are all discussing what should be served for dinner.
(2) The food fuss revolves around one phrase: genetic modification. There are two groups with strong views on both sides of that phrase. One side argues that genetic modification of food enhances the quality and nutritional value of already-existing foods as well as generating new ways to produce that food. The other side questions the technology’s safety and long-term effects, arguing that people simply don’t know what they are putting in their mouths.
(3) The term ‘genetically modified’ (GM) is an offspring of another term: biotechnology. A word that has been around for thirty years, biotechnology was created in the shadow of new techniques that allowed scientists to modify the genetic material in living cells. Basically, that means playing around with various biological processes to produce substances that, arguably, benefit things like agriculture, medicine, and the environment.
(4) If you know how to cut and paste on a computer, you have figured out genetic modification. The Canadian food Inspection Agency describes it like this: It all begins with a cell made up of chromosomes; the chromosomes are made up of DNA and are organised into sections called genes; genes determine the characteristics of an organism. These genes can be ‘cut’ from one organism and ‘pasted’ into another. Several foods that people eat every day are products of this process, such as tomatoes that ripen on the vine and maintain their texture and tough skin for several weeks. A potato plant developed to resist an insect known to attack it is another example. In the latter case, the GM version eliminates the need for chemical pesticides.
(5) Proponents of GM foods argue that using biotechnology in the production of food products has many benefits. It speeds up the process of breeding plants and animals with desired characteristics, can be used to introduce new characteristics that a product would not normally have, and can improve the nutritional value of products. And, say the supporters, all of this is done safely.
(6) Groups who advocate against the use of GM foods do not see things quite the same way. They point to studies that argue GM foods could be harmful to people’s health. To the groups on this side of the issue, that ‘could’ provides more than enough reason to go forward with extreme caution, something they say is not currently being done. GM critics say enough time has not passed to study the long-term effects of the foods.
(7) In Europe, hardly a week goes by without some headline about GM foods or, rather, ‘Frankenfoods’ * as they have been called by the European media. The Church of England has entered the debate, criticising the production of GM crops. Ever responsive to consumer demands, the European Union has taken a strong position on this issue, going so far as to propose a ban on GM foods. These responses are the outcome of a campaign. Various scares, the best-known being mad cow disease, have consumers in Europe cautious of food genetically altered to kill pests or resist herbicides (chemicals that stop the growth of certain plants).
(8) Two British food companies have even dropped GM ingredients from their products, something the North American branches of these companies have not done. That is not all that surprising for one simple reason: there is an unmistakable split in the policies toward GM foods between the two sides of the Atlantic that some call the Atlantic Divide. Supporters argue North America’s approach is more progressive, while sceptics argue
Bahçeşehir University English Preparatory Program
*Frankenfoods: a word created by combining ‘Frankenstein’ with ‘foods’; Frankenstein being the monster
it is less safe. Whatever the case, the Atlantic Divide can be attributed to two things. The first is all about experience: the North American side of the Atlantic has not seen a scare comparable to mad cow disease. The second is all about dollars: North Americans expect their food to be cheap. And while the Atlantic may divide the approach to GM foods, it does not stop the two sides from arguing. (9) The fuss over food extends to whether the manufacturing process is made known. Canada has adoptedboth a mandatory and voluntary labelling policy. According to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, mandatory labelling applies to all foods that have been changed nutritionally or compositionally, or to alert consumers of possible allergens, that is, substances that cause allergies. That does not mean, though, that all GM food will be labelled. If it can be shown through tests that the nutrition or composition of such foods remains unchanged, no special label is required. Even though labels are not required, they are allowed, but only when ‘truthful and not misleading.’ A good example is the ‘fat free’ claim made on some products. Because of the ambiguity surrounding voluntary labelling, it has been determined that clearer rules are needed. (10) The GM debate makes us consider the role technology has in our lives. What makes this debate unique is that every meal we eat is at its very core. And that fact means one thing: it is an issue that will be discussed not only around policy tables, but dinner tables as well.
26. From the first paragraph, we understand that ____.
a) dinner is the most important meal of the day
b) “What’s for dinner?” is a typical question we all ask
c) there is a discussion over what we should eat
d) family members don’t eat together any more
27. The main aim of paragraph 2 is to show the reader that ____.
a) genetic modification enhances the quality of foods
b) genetic modification helps us produce foods in new ways
c) we should preserve the nutritional value of already existing foods
d) while some people support genetic modification, others are against it
Bahçeşehir University English Preparatory Program
28. According to paragraph 3, which of the following is FALSE?
a) It is proved that genetic modification definitely benefits the environment.
b) Genetic modification is a technique used in biotechnology.
c) It is now possible to change the genetic material in living cells.
d) People have been using the word ‘biotechnology’ for about thirty years.
29. The writer uses computer terms like ‘cut’ and ‘paste’ in order to show that ____.
a) genetic modification is impossible without using computers
b) it is easy for a computer user to understand how genetic modification works
c) genes are ‘cut’ from one organism and ‘pasted’ into another using a computer
d) several foods that people eat every day have been genetically modified
30. The word “it” in paragraph 4 refers to ____.
a) texture b) tough skin c) potato plant d) insect
31. The word “breeding ” in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to ____.
a) changing b) reproducing c) looking after d) arranging
32. According to paragraph 6, which of the following is FALSE?
a) GM foods can have negative effects on our health.
b) Some believe we need to be extremely careful with GM foods.
c) Groups who are against GM foods don’t want to see the facts.
d) We need time to assess the effects of GM foods on people.
33. The European Union ____.
a) suggests labelling GM foods as Frankenfoods
b) is in disagreement with the Church of England regarding GM foods
c) bans the use of chemicals in the production of foods
d) is very sensitive about consumer demands regarding GM foods
34. Two British companies excluded GM ingredients from their products in Europe, but continued to include them in their products in North America because ____.
a) North America’s approach is more modern
b) North Americans have not had a bad experience like mad cow disease
c) these products are sold at a much lower price in North America than in Europe
d) GM foods are not preferred by many Europeans
35. The word “mandatory ” in paragraph 9 is closest in meaning to ____.
a) obligatory b) satisfactory c) precautious d) reasonable
36. The main purpose of this text is to ____.
a) list the benefits of GM foods
b) present opinions for and against GM foods
c) warn the reader about the risks of GM foods
d) explain why Europeans refuse to eat GM foods
Visitors to the United States, especially those from Japan or the smaller countries of Europe, are likely to comment on the size and scale of everything. Although the downtown sections of some of the older cities such as Boston and Philadelphia may look similar to their own larger cities, other aspects are likely to appear ”out of scale“. For example, the average American farm is huge in comparison with the typical family farm of Europe and Asia. Across the Great Plains, farmers use great machines to plant and harvest enormous quantities of wheat. Such farms offer a dramatic contrast to the tiny farms of Europe or Asia, where intense human labour is more important. The main cities of the United States are connected by a vast system of highways and superhighways moving endless streams of cars and trucks, while on the edge of the cities, suburban developments and shopping centres with huge parking lots stretch for mile after mile. It is as if Americans made everything larger, just to use up the available space.
37. To Japanese and European visitors, the downtown sections of Boston and Philadelphia seem ____.
a) out of scale b) too old c) the right size d) very attractive
38. The typical American farm ____.
a) is similar to farms everywhere c) is run by large families
b) uses a lot of machinery d) does not require much work
39. The article implies that people in the United States are influenced by ____.
a) visitors’ impressions of their country
b) the need to grow lots of food
c) farming practices in Europe and Asia
d) the amount of available space
40. The word “streams ” is closest in meaning to ____.
a) costs b) speeds c) lines d) risks
People do not need to be in close physical contact to feel “connected” emotionally. Over the years, various means of communication have been used to enable human beings to keep in contact with one another. Letters, telegrams and telephones have allowed individuals located in different places to share news and to interact with family, friends and business relationships. In today’s world, with more and more people on the move, long-distance communication has become even more important. At the same time, changes in technology, particularly the introduction of computers and the increasing use of electronic mail, have made it easier than ever to stay in contact. There are two main reasons why e-mail has become so widespread: time and money. Although mail service and telephones can be found almost everywhere, a letter can take a long time to arrive and phone calls are often quite expensive. E-mail seems to be replacing other forms of communication for many purposes. As the use of computers has spread, many people use e-mail rather than regular mail to send personal messages. Because it has become so easy to send pictures and information via the Internet, it has also become commonplace to use e-mail in business. E-mail has even given rise to a new type of communication, the “chat room,” where groups of people who do not know each other personally can talk about topics of mutual interest. While some people are enthusiastic about communication in the modern age, others regret the growing depersonalization brought on by the use of e-mail. Communication has become so easy and yet so removed from the normal process of face-to-face interaction that researchers have concluded that a whole new culture of communication may be forming.
41. The main idea of the article is that ____.
a) these days people do not communicate enough
b) modern communication methods cost too much
c) letters and phone calls are more effective
d) e-mail is changing the way we communicate
42. According to the text, modern communications enable people to ____.
a) see each other more often
b) write more letters and telegrams
c) keep in touch with each other
d) move from place to place quickly
43. In comparison with a telephone call, an e-mail is ____.
a) more reliable b) more personal c) slower d) cheaper
44. ____ is a type of communication made possible by e-mail.
a) A personal message c) Long-distance discussion
b) A chat room d) Sending information
45. The word “mutual ” is closest in meaning to ____.
a) common b) individual c) various d) flexible
SECTION 3- LISTENING
Listen to two people talking about news. You have TWO minutes to read the questions. You will hear the audio TWICE.
46. According to Ahmet, which of the following does NOT get enough news coverage?
a) entertainment c) celebrities
b) plastic surgery d) international affairs
47. Ahmet thinks that news programmes focus more on things like ____.
a) how to lose weight c) conflicts between countries
b) political problems d) clean energy technologies
48. Ahmet criticizes news programmes because he thinks ____.
a) they are between very popular TV serials
b) the voices of the presenters are the same
c) they don’t entertain the viewer
d) they sound like films
49. What does Ahmet mean by “instant gratification”?
a) News doesn’t make the viewer happy.
b) News doesn’t require the viewer to think.
c) News should teach you something.
d) News should provide all the facts.
50. Ahmet says physically attractive news anchors are used because ____.
a) they can report shallow news better
b) the viewers want to see attractive people
c) they make you feel like you are learning something
d) they are usually more intelligent
51. According to Ahmet, the problem with newspapers is that ____.
a) they don’t provide enough detail
b) they don’t report events accurately
c) people don’t have time to read them
d) the reporters don’t like being criticized
Listen to a lecture about CULTURE SHOCK and take notes. You will listen to the lecture TWICE.
CULTURE SHOCK · DEFINITION OF CULTURE SHOCK · WHY PEOPLE EXPERIENCE CULTURE SHOCK · DIFFERENT STAGES OF CULTURE SHOCK
1) The Honeymoon Stage
2) The Hostile Stage
3) The Resignation Stage
· SOME POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS OF THIS RESEARCH
PART B: NOTE–TAKING
Now answer the following questions using your notes.
52. People experience culture shock when ____.
a) they travel to places they lived in previously
b) family members put a lot of pressure on each other
c) they refuse to obey any of the rules of the society
d) they feel the pressure of a different cultural group
53. According to the speaker, people ____.
a) unconsciously learn the rules of their own social group
b) should not question the rules of their social group
c) try to change the behaviour of the people around them
d) do not totally depend on the rules of their social group
54. People experiencing culture shock often behave irrationally because ____.
a) they don’t want to learn a totally different set of rules
b) they can’t use their own culture as a map to guide them
c) it takes a long time to learn all the rules that surround you
d) there are different symptoms at different stages of culture shock
55. At the first stage of culture shock, people do NOT feel ____.
a) excited b) fascinated c) frightened d) thrilled
56. On your trips abroad, you can avoid the less enjoyable aspects of culture shock if you ____.
a) don’t mind cultural differences b) don’t feel scared c) protect your own cultural values d) have a set return date
57. At the “hostile” stage, travellers may feel exhausted, lonely and nervous because ____.
a) they have to unlearn their own cultural habits
b) they spend a lot of time in the new country
c) they refuse to act according to the ways of the new place
d) they have to celebrate cultural differenc58. Depending on the person, culture shock can last up to ____.
a) five months b) six months c) seven months d) twelve months
59. At the “resignation” stage, people become completely ____.
a) comfortable b) relaxed c) adjusted d) defensive
60. “Internal culture shock” occurs when ____.
a) people are not willing to learn to speak a foreign language
b) older residents of a country receive a large number of newcomers
c) newcomers stop behaving according to their own cultural patterns
d) problems or conflicts arise within the same ethnic group
SECTION 4- WRITING
Discuss ONE of the following topics. (250 – 300 words)
- Discuss the negative/positive effects of TV on children.
- Discuss whether there should be capital punishment or not.
- Discuss whether the government’s decision to ban smoking in public places is right or not.
WHILE LISTENING TAPESCRIPT
Interviewer: Hi, Ahmet. I’d like to get your opinion about news in Turkey.
Ahmet : Well, I have very strong opinions about it. We think we are getting the news, but it’s really just entertainment. It’s based on what’s going to keep people tuned in, like plastic surgery or celebrities. They actually tease you to get you to watch the news with those stories, because I think Turkish people get bored with international news.
Interviewer: You are talking about news on TV, right?
Ahmet : Uh, yeah. They say “Tune in at 11, find out how this woman lost weight.” And that kind of keeps people watching – and that’s what they call “news”. But what about major political problems? Conflicts between countries or… or clean energy technologies. Those don’t get reported in the way they should be – they don’t get reported enough.
Interviewer: Yeah, I – I see what you are saying.
Ahmet : The other thing that bothers me about the news is that it’s shallow. Like, there are these people doing voice-overs. But the voice-overs have the same tone as people who do it for the movies. It’s like “ Six Guns to Kill” and then it’s like “Plastic Surgery at 11.” And it’s the same voice, the same style for those two stories. It’s equating those types of information. It’s all like entertainment.
Interviewer: Do you think entertainment is more interesting than news?
Ahmet : Good question. I actually think we have got used to the idea that news should be just as entertaining as the movies. Like a sitcom. And it should be quick, and sort of like instant gratification.
Interviewer: What do you mean by instant gratification?
Ahmet : It’s something that doesn’t require you to think. Easy information. Something that makes you feel like you are learning something, but you really aren’t. So, it’s quick and it’s shallow. And the TV news has to be reported by news anchors who are physically attractive. They don’t have to be clever, but they have to be good-looking. If they are not attractive, viewers complain.
Interviewer: Well, do you think newspapers give you a better news coverage than TV?
Ahmet : I think newspapers are better, because they are more in depth. But then who has time to really read them? And what’s difficult about news in general is … see, I’m criticizing what’s being reported, but the main problem is what’s not being reported. And that’s hard to criticize, because you don’t know what’s not there. And I think papers are guilty of that.
Interviewer: Do you get any news from radio or the Internet? Are they better? I mean, are there any good places to get news?
Ahmet : I do think there are better places. But you have to spend time finding them. And people need quick access. If you want to get specialized news, you have to go to special radio stations or websites, and I don’t even know what those are.
Interviewer: So, where do you get your news?
Ahmet : Mostly on TV. That’s the thing. I realize I’m being sucked into it, but it’s okay because I know I’m
being sucked in!
Good morning everyone. The topic of our lecture today is Culture Shock – Group Pressure in Action. First, I’ll define the term culture shock and then I’ll talk about why people experience this culture shock, and I’ll also give you some information about the different stages of culture shock. Finally, I’ll mention some possible applications of this research. OK, then. To start with, what’s culture shock? Culture shock is the term used to describe the experience many people have when they travel to another country. It can be seen as a manifestation of group pressure in action. It is a good example of group pressure, because it shows what happens when an individual suddenly experiences different cultural rules – the rules of another cultural group. Now, after this brief definition, I’ll talk about why people experience culture shock. Think about this for a minute. When you grow up in a particular set of surroundings, naturally, you get used to the rules and guidelines that govern the behaviour of the people around you. In a sense, you become totally dependent on the rules of your social group. You tend not to question them; you just accept them without thinking. These rules are often not clearly expressed, and therefore, you are not aware of their impact. In other words, you are not necessarily conscious of them. They only become important when, for example, you go to another country or a different environment that is governed by different set of rules. In fact, this experience can be so shocking that it has been compared to having a bucket of cold water thrown over you. Culture shock happens precisely because you cannot use your own culture as a map to guide your own behaviour and your own understanding of what surrounds you. You are totally out of control, just as if you were driving along a highway in the dark, without a road map. And because of this, people often behave irrationally. It is a highly stressful experience, and there are different symptoms at different stages. Now, let’s turn to the different stages of culture shock. Most researchers agree that there are three main stages. The first stage is often referred to as the “honeymoon” stage. It is the time when you first arrive in a new culture and are confronted with a whole set of different emotions. What are the emotions that you experience during this time?
Even though this is a new and often strange experience, people don’t usually react with fear. Surprisingly, there is often a feeling of joy. The most common reactions at this time are excitement, fascination and enthusiasm. Of course, you are on your guard because of the strangeness in the situation. But, at this stage, cultural differences are likely to seem exciting, rather than threatening. Especially on shorter trips this honeymoon period can be great, and if you have a set return date, you are protected against the less enjoyable aspects of culture shock. The second stage has been called the “hostile” stage. Here are some feelings that people experience during this phase: irritation, hostility, and confusion. They might also feel exhausted, lonely and nervous. These feelings happen because travellers have to unlearn their own cultural habits and values as they spend more time in a new country and are expected to function according to the ways of that place. They may feel like lost children without protection. At the hostile stage, people no longer celebrate cultural differences but see them as a source of conflict. They probably want to go home, but if they can’t do that, they spend a lot of time with other people from their own country, in order to get back a sense of safety. They want to seek out and consume familiar food from their home country. This stage will often last for five, six or seven months, but it varies from person to person. If you are unaware what you are going through, that is, if you are unprepared, it may last up to one year. The final stage is one of “resignation” or “acceptance”. Even if visitors are not completely comfortable or relaxed, they do become adjusted to this new environment. A good example of this is the custom of leaving shoes outside the house in Turkey. Many one-time residents find this strange at the beginning, but later, they get used to it. At this acceptance stage people stop feeling that they need to defend their own culture every time they encounter a habit or value they don’t easily understand. Acceptance does not necessarily mean total understanding. It’s nearly impossible to ever claim complete understanding of another culture. Instead it involves the realization that it is not necessary to “get” it all. People at this stage find what makes them happy in their new surroundings. They might never recapture the honeymoon period, but they are not as depressed as they were during stage two. To conclude, let’s look at some practical applications of the research. Well, it doesn’t just apply to tourists on vacation or even international students. In our world of rapid transportation and population mobility, many societies have recent immigrants, sometimes in large numbers. This becomes a general social challenge, because immigrants are going through even more cultural shock than tourists, travellers or international students. At this point, I’d like to introduce a new term: “internal culture shock”. So, what’s internal culture shock? When older residents of a country are faced with large numbers of new immigrants, they can experience “internal culture shock”. Imagine that in your neighbourhood people speak a foreign language or eat unfamiliar food or behave according to cultural patterns brought from their own countries. How would you feel? But in the modern world, this is possible. Cultural differences can sometimes lead to tense relationships between different ethnic groups. So it is vital that people try to learn as much as possible about the different cultures in their own societies. Because the more we learn about our differences, the easier it is to live in a world where different cultures have to live in close contact with each other. So today, we have defined the term culture shock and then looked at why people experience this culture shock, and the different stages of culture shock. We also mentioned some possible applications of this research. Thank you for listening.
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